Ansible Playbook for Cisco BGP Routing Topology

This is my Ansible Playbook for a simple Cisco BGP routing topology and using a CICD pipeline for integration testing. The virtual network environment is created on-demand by using Vagrant, see my post about Cisco IOSv and XE network simulation using Vagrant.

Network overview:

Here’s my Github repository where you can find the complete Ansible Playbook: https://github.com/berndonline/cisco-lab-provision

You can find all the variables for the interface and routing configuration under host_vars. Below is an example for router rtr-1:

---

hostname: rtr-1
domain_name: lab.local

loopback:
  address: 10.255.0.1
  mask: 255.255.255.255

interfaces:
  0/1:
    alias: connection rtr-2
    address: 10.0.255.1
    mask: 255.255.255.252

  0/2:
    alias: connection rtr-3
    address: 10.0.255.5
    mask: 255.255.255.252

bgp:
  asn: 65001
  neighbor:
    - {address: 10.0.255.2, remote_as: 65000}
    - {address: 10.0.255.6, remote_as: 65000}
  networks:
    - {network: 10.0.255.0, mask: 255.255.255.252}
    - {network: 10.0.255.4, mask: 255.255.255.252}
    - {network: 10.255.0.1, mask: 255.255.255.255}
  maxpath: 2

Roles:

  • Hostname: The task in main.yml uses the Ansible module ios_system and configures hostname, domain name and disables dns lookups.
  • Interfaces: This role uses the Ansible module ios_config to deploy the template interfaces.j2 to configure the interfaces. In the main.yml is a second task to enable the interfaces when the previous template applied the configuration.
  • Routing: Very similar to the interfaces role and uses also the ios_config module to deploy the template routing.j2 for the BGP routing configuration.

Main Ansible Playbook site.yml:

---

- hosts: all

  connection: local
  user: vagrant
  gather_facts: 'no'

  roles:
    - hostname
    - interfaces
    - routing

When a change triggers the gitlab-ci pipeline it spins up the Vagrant instances and executes the main Ansible Playbook:

After the main site.yml ran, a second Playbook is executed for basic connectivity testing cisco_check_icmp.yml. This uses the Ansible module ios_ping and can be useful in my case to validate if the configuration was correctly applied:

If everything goes well, like in this example, the job is successful:

I will continue to improve the Playbook and the CICD pipeline so come back later to check it out.

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Continuous Integration and Delivery for Networking with Cisco devices

This post is about continuous integration and continuous delivery (CICD) for Cisco devices and how to use network simulation to test automation before deploying this to production environments. That was one of the main reasons for me to use Vagrant for simulating the network because the virtual environment can be created on-demand and thrown away after the scripts run successful. Please read before my post about Cisco network simulation using Vagrant: Cisco IOSv and XE network simulation using Vagrant and Cisco ASAv network simulation using Vagrant.

Same like in my first post about Continuous Integration and Delivery for Networking with Cumulus Linux, I am using Gitlab.com and their Gitlab-runner for the continuous integration and delivery (CICD) pipeline.

  • You need to register your Gitlab-runner with the Gitlab repository:

  • The next step is to create your .gitlab-ci.yml which defines your CI-pipeline.
---
stages:
    - validate ansible
    - staging iosv
    - staging iosxe
validate:
    stage: validate ansible
    script:
        - bash ./linter.sh
staging_iosv:
    before_script:
        - git clone https://github.com/berndonline/cisco-lab-vagrant.git
        - cd cisco-lab-vagrant/
        - cp Vagrantfile-IOSv Vagrantfile
    stage: staging iosv
    script:
        - bash ../staging.sh
staging_iosxe:
    before_script:
        - git clone https://github.com/berndonline/cisco-lab-vagrant.git
        - cd cisco-lab-vagrant/
        - cp Vagrantfile-IOSXE Vagrantfile
    stage: staging iosxe
    script:
        - bash ../staging.sh

I clone the cisco vagrant lab which I use to spin-up a virtual staging environment and run the Ansible playbook against the virtual lab. The stages IOSv and IOSXE are just examples in my case depending what Cisco IOS versions you want to test.

The production stage would be similar to staging only that you run the Ansible playbook against your physical environment.

  • Basically any commit or merge in the Gitlab repo triggers the pipeline which is defined in the gitlab-ci.

  • The first stage is only to validate that the YAML files have the correct syntax.

  • Here the details of a job and when everything goes well the job succeeded.

This is an easy way to test your Ansible playbooks against a virtual Cisco environment before deploying this to a production system.

Here again my two repositories I use:

https://github.com/berndonline/cisco-lab-vagrant

https://github.com/berndonline/cisco-lab-provision

Read my new posts about Ansible Playbook for Cisco ASAv Firewall Topology or Ansible Playbook for Cisco BGP Routing Topology.

Continuous Integration and Delivery for Networking with Cumulus Linux

Continuous Integration – Continuous Delivery (CICD) is becoming more and more popular for network automation but the problem is how to validate your scripts and stage the configuration because you don’t want to deploy untested code to a production system. Especially in networking that could be pretty destructive if you made a mistake which could cause a loss in connectivity.

I spend some days working on a Cumulus Linux lab using Vagrant which I use to stage configuration. You find the basic Ansible playbook and the gitlab-ci configuration for the Cumulus lab in my Github repo: cumulus-lab-provision

For the continuous integration and delivery (CI/CD) pipeline I am using Gitlab.com and their Gitlab-runner which is running on my server. I will not get into too much detail what is needed on the server, basically it runs vargant, libvirt (kvm), virtualbox, ansible and the gitlab-runner.

  • You need to register your Gitlab-runner with the Gitlab repository.

  • The next step is to create your .gitlab-ci.yml which defines your CI-pipeline.
---
stages:
    - validate ansible
    - staging
    - production
validate:
    stage: validate ansible
    script:
        - bash ./linter.sh
staging:
    before_script:
        - git clone https://github.com/berndonline/cumulus-lab-vagrant.git
        - cd cumulus-lab-vagrant/
        - python ./topology_converter.py ./topology-staging.dot
          -p libvirt --ansible-hostfile
    stage: staging
    script:
        - bash ../staging.sh
production:
    before_script:
        - git clone https://github.com/berndonline/cumulus-lab-vagrant.git
        - cd cumulus-lab-vagrant/
        - python ./topology_converter.py ./topology-production.dot
          -p libvirt --ansible-hostfile
    stage: production
    when: manual
    script:
        - bash ../production.sh
    only:
        - master

In the gitlab-ci you see that I clone the cumulus vagrant lab which I use to spin-up a virtual staging environment and run the Ansible playbook against the virtual lab. The production stage is in my example also a vagrant environment because I had no physical switches for testing.

  • Basically any commit or merge in the Gitlab repo triggers the pipeline which I define in the gitlab-ci.

  • You can see the details in the running job. The first stage is only to validate that the YAML files have the correct syntax.

  • Here the details of the running job of staging and when everything goes well the job succeeded.

  • The last stage is production which needs to be triggered manually.

  • After the changes run through all defined stages you see that you successfully validate, staged and deployed your configuration to a cumulus production system.

This is a complete different way of working for a network engineer but the way it goes in fully automated datacenter network environments. It gets very powerful when you combine this with the Cumulus NetQ server to validate the state of your switch fabric after you run changes in production.

The next topic I am working on, is using Cumulus NetQ to validate configuration changes.

Here again my two repositories I use:

https://github.com/berndonline/cumulus-lab-vagrant

https://github.com/berndonline/cumulus-lab-provision

Read my new posts about an Ansible Playbook for Cumulus Linux BGP IP-Fabric and Cumulus NetQ Validation and BGP EVPN and VXLAN with Cumulus Linux.

Cumulus Linux network simulation using Vagrant

I was using GNS3 for quite some time but it was not very flexible if you quickly wanted to test something and even more complicated if you used a different computer or shared your projects.

I spend some time with Vagrant to build a virtual Cumulus Linux lab environment which can run basically on every computer. Simulating network environments is the future when you want to test and validate your automation scripts.

My lab diagram:

I created different topology.dot files and used the Cumulus topology converter on Github to create my lab with Virtualbox or Libvirt (KVM). I did some modification to the initialise scripts for the switches and the management server. Everything you find in my Github repo https://github.com/berndonline/cumulus-lab-vagrant.

The topology file basically defines your network and the converter creates the Vagrantfile.

In the management topology file you have all servers (incl. management) like in the network diagram above. The Cumulus switches you can only access via the management server.

Very similar to the topology-mgmt.dot but in this one the management server is running Cumulus NetQ which you need to first import into your Vagrant. Here the link to the Cumulus NetQ demo on Github.

In this topology file you find a basic staging lab without servers where you can access the Cumulus switches directly via their Vagrant IP. I mainly use this to quickly test something like updating Cumulus switches or validating Ansible playbooks.

In this topology file you find a basic production lab where you can access the Cumulus switches directly via their Vagrant IP and have Cumulus NetQ as management server.

Basically to convert a topology into a Vagrantfile you just need to run the following command:

python topology_converter.py topology-staging.dot -p libvirt --ansible-hostfile

I use KVM in my example and want that Vagrant creates an Ansible inventory file and run playbooks directly agains the switches.

Check the status of the vagrant environment:

[email protected]:~/cumulus-lab-vagrant$ vagrant status
Current machine states:

spine-1                   not created (libvirt)
spine-2                   not created (libvirt)
leaf-1                    not created (libvirt)
leaf-3                    not created (libvirt)
leaf-2                    not created (libvirt)
leaf-4                    not created (libvirt)
mgmt-1                    not created (libvirt)
edge-2                    not created (libvirt)
edge-1                    not created (libvirt)

This environment represents multiple VMs. The VMs are all listed
above with their current state. For more information about a specific
VM, run `vagrant status NAME`.
[email protected]:~/cumulus-lab-vagrant$

To start the devices run:

vagrant up

If you use the topology files with management server you need to start first the management server and then the management switch before you boot the rest of the switches:

vagrant up mgmt-server
vagrant up mgmt-1
vagrant up

The switches will pull some part of their configuration from the management server.

Output if you start the environment:

[email protected]:~/cumulus-lab-vagrant$ vagrant up spine-1
Bringing machine 'spine-1' up with 'libvirt' provider...
==> spine-1: Creating image (snapshot of base box volume).
==> spine-1: Creating domain with the following settings...
==> spine-1:  -- Name:              cumulus-lab-vagrant_spine-1
==> spine-1:  -- Domain type:       kvm
==> spine-1:  -- Cpus:              1
==> spine-1:  -- Feature:           acpi
==> spine-1:  -- Feature:           apic
==> spine-1:  -- Feature:           pae
==> spine-1:  -- Memory:            512M
==> spine-1:  -- Management MAC:
==> spine-1:  -- Loader:
==> spine-1:  -- Base box:          CumulusCommunity/cumulus-vx
==> spine-1:  -- Storage pool:      default
==> spine-1:  -- Image:             /var/lib/libvirt/images/cumulus-lab-vagrant_spine-1.img (4G)
==> spine-1:  -- Volume Cache:      default
==> spine-1:  -- Kernel:
==> spine-1:  -- Initrd:
==> spine-1:  -- Graphics Type:     vnc
==> spine-1:  -- Graphics Port:     5900
==> spine-1:  -- Graphics IP:       127.0.0.1
==> spine-1:  -- Graphics Password: Not defined
==> spine-1:  -- Video Type:        cirrus
==> spine-1:  -- Video VRAM:        9216
==> spine-1:  -- Sound Type:
==> spine-1:  -- Keymap:            en-us
==> spine-1:  -- TPM Path:
==> spine-1:  -- INPUT:             type=mouse, bus=ps2
==> spine-1: Creating shared folders metadata...
==> spine-1: Starting domain.
==> spine-1: Waiting for domain to get an IP address...
==> spine-1: Waiting for SSH to become available...
    spine-1:
    spine-1: Vagrant insecure key detected. Vagrant will automatically replace
    spine-1: this with a newly generated keypair for better security.
    spine-1:
    spine-1: Inserting generated public key within guest...
    spine-1: Removing insecure key from the guest if it's present...
    spine-1: Key inserted! Disconnecting and reconnecting using new SSH key...
==> spine-1: Setting hostname...
==> spine-1: Configuring and enabling network interfaces...
....
==> spine-1: #################################
==> spine-1:   Running Switch Post Config (config_vagrant_switch.sh)
==> spine-1: #################################
==> spine-1:  ###Creating SSH keys for cumulus user ###
==> spine-1: #################################
==> spine-1:    Finished
==> spine-1: #################################
==> spine-1: Running provisioner: shell...
    spine-1: Running: inline script
==> spine-1: Running provisioner: shell...
    spine-1: Running: inline script
==> spine-1:   INFO: Adding UDEV Rule: a0:00:00:00:00:21 --> eth0
==> spine-1: Running provisioner: shell...
    spine-1: Running: inline script
==> spine-1:   INFO: Adding UDEV Rule: 44:38:39:00:00:30 --> swp1
==> spine-1: Running provisioner: shell...
    spine-1: Running: inline script
==> spine-1:   INFO: Adding UDEV Rule: 44:38:39:00:00:04 --> swp2
==> spine-1: Running provisioner: shell...
    spine-1: Running: inline script
==> spine-1:   INFO: Adding UDEV Rule: 44:38:39:00:00:26 --> swp3
==> spine-1: Running provisioner: shell...
    spine-1: Running: inline script
==> spine-1:   INFO: Adding UDEV Rule: 44:38:39:00:00:0a --> swp4
==> spine-1: Running provisioner: shell...
    spine-1: Running: inline script
==> spine-1:   INFO: Adding UDEV Rule: 44:38:39:00:00:22 --> swp51
==> spine-1: Running provisioner: shell...
    spine-1: Running: inline script
==> spine-1:   INFO: Adding UDEV Rule: 44:38:39:00:00:0d --> swp52
==> spine-1: Running provisioner: shell...
    spine-1: Running: inline script
==> spine-1:   INFO: Adding UDEV Rule: 44:38:39:00:00:10 --> swp53
==> spine-1: Running provisioner: shell...
    spine-1: Running: inline script
==> spine-1:   INFO: Adding UDEV Rule: 44:38:39:00:00:23 --> swp54
==> spine-1: Running provisioner: shell...
    spine-1: Running: inline script
==> spine-1:   INFO: Adding UDEV Rule: Vagrant interface = eth1
==> spine-1: #### UDEV Rules (/etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistent-net.rules) ####
==> spine-1: ACTION=="add", SUBSYSTEM=="net", ATTR{address}=="a0:00:00:00:00:21", NAME="eth0", SUBSYSTEMS=="pci"
==> spine-1: ACTION=="add", SUBSYSTEM=="net", ATTR{address}=="44:38:39:00:00:30", NAME="swp1", SUBSYSTEMS=="pci"
==> spine-1: ACTION=="add", SUBSYSTEM=="net", ATTR{address}=="44:38:39:00:00:04", NAME="swp2", SUBSYSTEMS=="pci"
==> spine-1: ACTION=="add", SUBSYSTEM=="net", ATTR{address}=="44:38:39:00:00:26", NAME="swp3", SUBSYSTEMS=="pci"
==> spine-1: ACTION=="add", SUBSYSTEM=="net", ATTR{address}=="44:38:39:00:00:0a", NAME="swp4", SUBSYSTEMS=="pci"
==> spine-1: ACTION=="add", SUBSYSTEM=="net", ATTR{address}=="44:38:39:00:00:22", NAME="swp51", SUBSYSTEMS=="pci"
==> spine-1: ACTION=="add", SUBSYSTEM=="net", ATTR{address}=="44:38:39:00:00:0d", NAME="swp52", SUBSYSTEMS=="pci"
==> spine-1: ACTION=="add", SUBSYSTEM=="net", ATTR{address}=="44:38:39:00:00:10", NAME="swp53", SUBSYSTEMS=="pci"
==> spine-1: ACTION=="add", SUBSYSTEM=="net", ATTR{address}=="44:38:39:00:00:23", NAME="swp54", SUBSYSTEMS=="pci"
==> spine-1: ACTION=="add", SUBSYSTEM=="net", ATTR{ifindex}=="2", NAME="eth1", SUBSYSTEMS=="pci"
==> spine-1: Running provisioner: shell...
    spine-1: Running: inline script
==> spine-1: ### RUNNING CUMULUS EXTRA CONFIG ###
==> spine-1:   INFO: Detected a 3.x Based Release
==> spine-1: ### Disabling default remap on Cumulus VX...
==> spine-1: ### Disabling ZTP service...
==> spine-1: Removed symlink /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/ztp.service.
==> spine-1: ### Resetting ZTP to work next boot...
==> spine-1: Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/ztp.service to /lib/systemd/system/ztp.service.
==> spine-1:   INFO: Detected Cumulus Linux v3.3.2 Release
==> spine-1: ### Fixing ONIE DHCP to avoid Vagrant Interface ###
==> spine-1:      Note: Installing from ONIE will undo these changes.
==> spine-1: ### Giving Vagrant User Ability to Run NCLU Commands ###
==> spine-1: ### DONE ###
==> spine-1: ### Rebooting Device to Apply Remap...

At the end you are able to connect to the Cumulus switch:

[email protected]:~/cumulus-lab-vagrant$ vagrant ssh spine-1

Welcome to Cumulus VX (TM)

Cumulus VX (TM) is a community supported virtual appliance designed for
experiencing, testing and prototyping Cumulus Networks' latest technology.
For any questions or technical support, visit our community site at:
http://community.cumulusnetworks.com

The registered trademark Linux (R) is used pursuant to a sublicense from LMI,
the exclusive licensee of Linus Torvalds, owner of the mark on a world-wide
basis.
[email protected]:~$

To destroy the Vagrant environment:

[email protected]:~/cumulus-lab-vagrant$ vagrant destroy spine-1
==> spine-2: Remove stale volume...
==> spine-2: Domain is not created. Please run `vagrant up` first.
==> spine-1: Removing domain...

My goal is to adopt some NetDevOps practice and use this in networking = NetOps, currently working on an Continuous Integration and Delivery (CI/CD) pipeline for Cumulus Linux network environments. The Vagrant lab was one of the prerequisites to simulate the changes before deploying this to production but more will follow in my next blog post.

Read my new post about an Ansible Playbook for Cumulus Linux BGP IP-Fabric and Cumulus NetQ Validation.