Howto Update Citrix NetScaler Firmware

Log on to the NetScaler appliance with SSH, such as PuTTY. Use the nsroot credentials to log in to the appliance.

Switch to the shell prompt.

Last login: Tue Mar  4 00:03:13 2014 from 10.49.9.110
Copyright (c) 1980, 1983, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1993, 1994
        The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
 Done
> 
> shell
Copyright (c) 1992-2008 The FreeBSD Project.
Copyright (c) 1979, 1980, 1983, 1986, 1988, 1989, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994
        The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
[email protected]#

Run the following command to change to the default installation directory:

[email protected]# cd /var/nsinstall/
[email protected]# ls
10.1nsinstall   installns_state
[email protected]# cd 10.1nsinstall/
[email protected]# ls
build_123.9
[email protected]# mkdir build_124.13

Upload new firmware in the build directory build-10.1-124.13_nc.tgz

Run the following command to extract the firmware:

[email protected]# cd build_124.13/
[email protected]# ls
build-10.1-124.13_nc.tgz
[email protected]# tar xzvf build-10.1-124.13_nc.tgz 
.ns.version
ns-10.1-124.13.gz
ns-10.1-124.13.sha2
installns
nsconfig
bootloader.tgz
help.tgz
CitrixNetScalerManagementPackSCOM2012.msi
CitrixNetScalerLoadBalancer.msi
BaltimoreCyberTrustRoot.cert
BaltimoreCyberTrustRoot_CH.cert
Citrix_Access_Gateway.dmg
macversion.txt
apidoc.tgz
NSConfig.wsdl
NSStat.wsdl
ns-10.1-124.13-gui.tar
ns-10.1-124.13-nitro-java.tgz
ns-10.1-124.13-nitro-csharp.tgz
ns-10.1-124.13-nitro-rest.tgz
ns-10.1-124.13-nitro-perl-samples.tgz
ns-10.1-124.13-nitro-python-samples.tgz
vmware-tools.tgz

Run the following command to install the software you have downloaded:

[email protected]# ./installns 

installns version (10.1-124.13) kernel (ns-10.1-124.13.gz)

  The Netscaler version 10.1-124.13 checksum file is located on 
  http://www.mycitrix.com under Support > Downloads > Citrix NetScaler.
  Select the Release 10.1-124.13 link and expand the "Show Documentation" link
  to view the SHA2 checksum file for build 10.1-124.13.

  There may be a pause of up to 3 minutes while data is written to the flash.
  Do not interrupt the installation process once it has begun.

Installation will proceed in 5 seconds, CTRL-C to abort
Installation is starting ...
VPX platform. Skipping CallHome checks.

Copying ns-10.1-124.13.gz to /flash/ns-10.1-124.13.gz ... 
.......................................................
Installing XML API documentation...
Installing NSConfig.wsdl...
Installing NSStat.wsdl...
Installing online help...
Installing SCOM Management Pack...
Installing LoadBalancer Pack...
Installing GUI...
Installing Mac binary and Mac version file...
Installing NITRO...
Installing Jazz certificate ...
Installing Call Home certificate ...
Creating after upgrade script ...

Installation has completed.

Reboot NOW? [Y/N] Y
Rebooting ...

NetScaler Global Server Load Balancing (GSLB) Configuration

Bin some month since I started working with Citrix NetScaler and so far I really like the NetScaler. I will not go into the deep how Global Server Load Balancing (GSLB) works and only explain my configuration. I use Exchange OWA as an example for GSLB, I will also not explain how to set-up a virtual server for Exchange OWA, please have a look at my previous blog post: NetScaler Exchange 2013 Load Balancing.

In my configuration I will use the same GSLB virtual server for internal and external access to Exchange OWA. The NetScaler see’s if you are coming from the internal network and give you a private IP address back, or when you are external you get a public IP address back for the same DNS entry.

Internal GSLB

External GSLB

Before you start you have to delegate a Subdomains in Microsoft DNS or BIND for Global Server Load Balancing on a NetScaler Appliance, more information how to do that you find here: http://support.citrix.com/article/CTX121713

VPX A

Enable GSLB on the NetScaler in location A and configure sites and ADNS service

enable ns feature GSLB

add gslb site site-A 10.1.0.200
add gslb site site-B 10.2.0.200

set ns rpcNode 10.1.0.200 -password ***key*** -srcIP * -secure YES
set ns rpcNode 10.2.0.200 -password ***key*** -srcIP * -secure YES

add service service-ADNS_53 10.1.0.240 ADNS 53 -gslb NONE -maxClient 0 -maxReq 0 -cip DISABLED -usip YES -useproxyport NO -sp OFF -cltTimeout 120 -svrTimeout 120 -CustomServerID "\"None\"" -CKA NO -TCPB NO -CMP NO
add service service-ADNS_TCP53 10.1.0.240 ADNS_TCP 53 -gslb NONE -maxClient 0 -maxReq 0 -cip DISABLED -usip YES -useproxyport YES -sp OFF -cltTimeout 180 -svrTimeout 360 -CustomServerID "\"None\"" -CKA NO -TCPB NO -CMP NO

add dns addRec ns01-a.gslb.domain.com 217.100.100.101
add dns soaRec gslb.domain.com -originServer ns01-a.gslb.domain.com -contact hostmaster.gslb.domain.com 
add dns nsRec gslb.domain.com ns01-a.gslb.domain.com -TTL 300 
add dns addRec ns01-a.gslb.domain.com 217.100.100.101 add dns zone gslb.domain.com -proxyMode NO

VPX B

Enable GSLB on the NetScaler in location B and configure sites and ADNS service

enable ns feature GSLB

add gslb site site-A 10.1.0.200
add gslb site site-B 10.2.0.200

set ns rpcNode 10.1.0.200 -password ***key*** -srcIP * -secure YES
set ns rpcNode 10.2.0.200 -password ***key*** -srcIP * -secure YES

add service service-ADNS_53 10.2.0.240 ADNS 53 -gslb NONE -maxClient 0 -maxReq 0 -cip DISABLED -usip YES -useproxyport NO -sp OFF -cltTimeout 120 -svrTimeout 120 -CustomServerID "\"None\"" -CKA NO -TCPB NO -CMP NO
add service service-ADNS_TCP53 10.2.0.240 ADNS_TCP 53 -gslb NONE -maxClient 0 -maxReq 0 -cip DISABLED -usip YES -useproxyport YES -sp OFF -cltTimeout 180 -svrTimeout 360 -CustomServerID "\"None\"" -CKA NO -TCPB NO -CMP NO

add dns addRec ns01-b.gslb.domain.com 217.100.200.101
add dns soaRec gslb.domain.com -originServer ns01-b.gslb.domain.com -contact hostmaster.gslb.domain.com 
add dns nsRec gslb.domain.com ns01-b.gslb.domain.com -TTL 300 
add dns addRec ns01-b.gslb.domain.com 217.100.200.101 add dns zone gslb.domain.com -proxyMode NO

VPX A

Configure GSLB service and virtual server in location A

add server vserver-EXCHANGE-OWA-A 10.1.0.100
add server vserver-EXCHANGE-OWA-B 10.2.0.100

add gslb vserver vserver-GSLB-EXCHANGE-OWA SSL -backupLBMethod ROUNDROBIN -tolerance 0 -EDR ENABLED -appflowLog DISABLED
set gslb vserver vserver-GSLB-EXCHANGE-OWA -backupLBMethod ROUNDROBIN -tolerance 0 -EDR ENABLED -appflowLog DISABLED

add gslb service service-GSLB-EXCHANGE-OWA-A_443 vserver-EXCHANGE-OWA-A SSL 443 -publicIP 217.100.100.102 -publicPort 443 -maxClient 0 -siteName site-A -cltTimeout 180 -svrTimeout 360 -downStateFlush DISABLED
add gslb service service-GSLB-EXCHANGE-OWA-B_443 vserver-EXCHANGE-OWA-B SSL 443 -publicIP 217.100.200.102 -publicPort 443 -maxClient 0 -siteName site-B -cltTimeout 180 -svrTimeout 360 -downStateFlush DISABLED

bind gslb vserver vserver-GSLB-EXCHANGE-OWA_443 -serviceName service-GSLB-EXCHANGE-OWA-A_443
bind gslb vserver vserver-GSLB-EXCHANGE-OWA_443 -serviceName service-GSLB-EXCHANGE-OWA-B_443
bind gslb vserver vserver-GSLB-EXCHANGE-OWA_443 -domainName owa.gslb.domain.com -TTL 5 -sitedomainTTL 300
bind gslb service service-GSLB-EXCHANGE-OWA-D_443 -monitorName https
bind gslb service service-GSLB-EXCHANGE-OWA-C_443 -monitorName https

VPX B

Configure GSLB service and virtual server in location B

add server vserver-EXCHANGE-OWA-A 10.1.0.100
add server vserver-EXCHANGE-OWA-B 10.2.0.100

add gslb vserver vserver-GSLB-EXCHANGE-OWA SSL -backupLBMethod ROUNDROBIN -tolerance 0 -EDR ENABLED -appflowLog DISABLED
set gslb vserver vserver-GSLB-EXCHANGE-OWA -backupLBMethod ROUNDROBIN -tolerance 0 -EDR ENABLED -appflowLog DISABLED

add gslb service service-GSLB-EXCHANGE-OWA-A_443 vserver-EXCHANGE-OWA-A SSL 443 -publicIP 217.100.100.102 -publicPort 443 -maxClient 0 -siteName site-A -cltTimeout 180 -svrTimeout 360 -downStateFlush DISABLED
add gslb service service-GSLB-EXCHANGE-OWA-B_443 vserver-EXCHANGE-OWA-B SSL 443 -publicIP 217.100.200.102 -publicPort 443 -maxClient 0 -siteName site-B -cltTimeout 180 -svrTimeout 360 -downStateFlush DISABLED

bind gslb vserver vserver-GSLB-EXCHANGE-OWA_443 -serviceName service-GSLB-EXCHANGE-OWA-A_443
bind gslb vserver vserver-GSLB-EXCHANGE-OWA_443 -serviceName service-GSLB-EXCHANGE-OWA-B_443
bind gslb vserver vserver-GSLB-EXCHANGE-OWA_443 -domainName owa.gslb.domain.com -TTL 5 -sitedomainTTL 300
bind gslb service service-GSLB-EXCHANGE-OWA-A_443 -monitorName https
bind gslb service service-GSLB-EXCHANGE-OWA-B_443 -monitorName https

Now you need to create an DNS view because  we assign the public IP to the GSLB service and everybody gets the public IP as DNS response. With the internal DNS view, internal users get the internal private IP address back.

VPX A

add dns view view-INTERNAL
add dns action action-DNS-INTERNAL ViewName -viewName view-INTERNAL
add dns policy policy-DNS-INTERNAL "client.IP.SRC.IN_SUBNET(10.0.0.0/8)" action-DNS-INTERNAL
bind dns global policy-DNS-INTERNAL 100 -gotoPriorityExpression END -type REQ_DEFAULT

bind gslb service service-GSLB-EXCHANGE-OWA-A_443 -viewName view-INTERNAL 10.1.0.100
bind gslb service service-GSLB-EXCHANGE-OWA-B_443 -viewName view-INTERNAL 10.2.0.100

VPX B

add dns view view-INTERNAL
add dns action action-DNS-INTERNAL ViewName -viewName view-INTERNAL
add dns policy policy-DNS-INTERNAL "client.IP.SRC.IN_SUBNET(10.0.0.0/8)" action-DNS-INTERNAL
bind dns global policy-DNS-INTERNAL 100 -gotoPriorityExpression END -type REQ_DEFAULT

bind gslb service service-GSLB-EXCHANGE-OWA-A_443 -viewName view-INTERNAL 10.1.0.100
bind gslb service service-GSLB-EXCHANGE-OWA-B_443 -viewName view-INTERNAL 10.2.0.100

That’s it from the configuration for GSLB, quite easy and straight forward 🙂

Here you find a very detailed PDF from Citrix about GSLB: http://support.citrix.com/servlet/KbServlet/download/22506-102-671576/gslb-primer_FINAL_1019.pdf

NetScaler Lync 2013 Frontend (Reverse proxy) balancing

I will not go into much detail about Lync 2013 infrastructures its just a basic setup to use the NetScaler as reverse proxy for external access to the Lync Frontend server. I am still working on the virtual server configuration for the Lync Edge and internal Lync Frontend server but will follow soon. Especially the Lync Edge is a bit tricky because you can’t use SNAT (not recommended) for your load balancing configuration, so the NetScaler needs to own the gateway and all traffic must path though the NetScaler.

Very useful is the Lync 2013 Protocol Map to understand the communication flow.

Add Custom Availability Monitors

add lb monitor monitor-LYNC-TCP4443 TCP -LRTM ENABLED -destPort 4443 -secure YES 
add lb monitor monitor-LYNC-TCP8080 TCP -LRTM ENABLED -destPort 8080

Add Lync Servers

add server LYFE01 10.1.1.30
add server LYFE02 10.1.1.31

Create Service Groups and bind Monitors

add serviceGroup service-LYNC-FE_8080 HTTP -maxClient 0 -maxReq 0 -cip DISABLED -usip NO -useproxyport YES -cltTimeout 180 -svrTimeout 360 -CKA NO -TCPB NO -CMP YES -appflowLog DISABLED 
add serviceGroup service-LYNC-FE_4443 SSL -maxClient 0 -maxReq 0 -cip DISABLED -usip NO -useproxyport YES -cltTimeout 180 -svrTimeout 360 -CKA NO -TCPB NO -CMP YES -appflowLog DISABLED

bind serviceGroup service-LYNC-FE_8080 LYFE01 8080 -CustomServerID "\"None\"" 
bind serviceGroup service-LYNC-FE_8080 LYFE02 8080 -CustomServerID "\"None\"" 
bind serviceGroup service-LYNC-FE_8080 -monitorName monitor-LYNC-TCP8080 
bind serviceGroup service-LYNC-FE_4443 LYFE01 4443 -CustomServerID "\"None\"" 
bind serviceGroup service-LYNC-FE_4443 LYFE02 4443 -CustomServerID "\"None\"" 
bind serviceGroup service-LYNC-FE_4443 -monitorName monitor-LYNC-TCP4443

Create Virtual Servers for Lync

add lb vserver vserver-LYNC-FE_80 HTTP 10.44.124.6 80 -persistenceType COOKIEINSERT -timeout 180 -cookieName MS-WSMAN -cltTimeout 180 
add lb vserver vserver-LYNC-FE_443 SSL 10.44.124.6 443 -persistenceType COOKIEINSERT -timeout 180 -cookieName MS-WSMAN -cltTimeout 180

Bind Virtual Servers to Service Groups and configure SSL

bind lb vserver vserver-LYNC-FE_80 service-LYNC-FE_8080 
bind lb vserver vserver-LYNC-FE_443 service-LYNC-FE_4443 

set ssl vserver vserver-LYNC-FE_443 -tls11 DISABLED -tls12 DISABLED 
bind ssl vserver vserver-LYNC-FE_443 -certkeyName lync.mydomain.net

If you want more details please have a look into the Deplyment Guide – Citrix NetScaler for Microsoft Lync

More information about from Microsoft you find here: Network Planning, Monitoring, and Troubleshooting with Lync Server

 

NetScaler Exchange 2013 Load Balancing

Here an example how to configure Microsoft Exchange 2013 load balancing on Citrix NetScaler

Add Exchange Client Access (CAS) Servers

add server EXCHANGE-CAS01 10.1.0.101
add server EXCHANGE-CAS02 10.1.0.102

Create Service Groups

add serviceGroup service-EXCHANGE-OWA SSL -maxClient 0 -maxReq 0 -cip DISABLED -usip NO -useproxyport YES -cltTimeout 180 -svrTimeout 360 -CKA NO -TCPB NO -CMP YES -appf DISABLED

bind serviceGroup service-EXCHANGE-OWA EXCHANGE-CAS01 443 -CustomServerID “\”None\””
bind serviceGroup service-EXCHANGE-OWA EXCHANGE-CAS02 443 -CustomServerID “\”None\””
bind serviceGroup service-EXCHANGE-OWA -monitorName https

Import SSL cert

add ssl certKey mail-exchange-cas -cert “/nsconfig/ssl/mail-exchange-cas.pem” -key “/nsconfig/ssl/mail-exchange-cas.pem”

Create and Configure Virtual Server for Exchange

add lb vserver vserver-EXCHANGE-OWA SSL 192.168.0.1 443 -persistenceType SOURCEIP -cltTimeout 180
set ssl vserver vserver-EXCHANGE-OWA -tls11 DISABLED -tls12 DISABLED
bind lb vserver vserver-EXCHANGE-OWA service-EXCHANGE-OWA

Bind SSL to Service Groups and Virtual Server

bind ssl serviceGroup service-EXCHANGE-OWA -certkeyName mail-exchange-cas
bind ssl vserver vserver-EXCHANGE-OWA -certkeyName mail-exchange-cas

Some more information you find in the Citrix deployment guide for Exchange

Citrix NetScaler (Update)

Almost 3 years ago I evaluated and implemented for my ex company F5 BIG-IP 8950 load balancer; now for my new company I start implementing Citrix NetScaler VPX for our Windows infrastructre (Lync, Exchange and Citrix). Here a short overview how it is integrate in the two data centre’s:

From the first look I like the NetScaler, the CLI is a bit easier to understand from what I think but will see how it goes over the next weeks regarding balancing compare to F5 😉

I like the policy based routing implementation on the Netscaler, here a short example:

add ns pbr mgmt-access ALLOW -srcIP = 10.1.0.200 -destIP = 192.168.0.1-192.168.0.254 -nextHop 10.1.0.254 -priority 10

Access to the 10.1.0.200 will be routed to the gateway 10.1.0.254 even you have a default gateway configured what shows to another direction.

In my set-up you need to configure policy based routing if server in the Windows backend network try to access virtual server IPs in the LB-Transfer network otherwise you have asymetric routing.

add ns pbr VIP-WIND-DC02 ALLOW -srcIP = 10.2.0.1-10.2.0.100 -destIP = 10.1.0.1-10.1.0.254 -nextHop 10.2.0.254 -priority 11